Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

Nature of Business

The term "VSE," the "Company," "us," "we," or "our" means VSE and its subsidiaries and divisions unless the context indicates operations of only VSE as the parent company.

Our operations include supply chain management solutions and parts supply for vehicle fleets; maintenance, repair, and overhaul ("MRO") services and parts supply for aviation clients; vehicle and equipment maintenance and refurbishment; logistics; engineering; energy and environmental services; IT and health care IT solutions; and consulting services. We provide logistics services for legacy systems and equipment and professional and technical services to the United States Government (the "government"), including the United States Postal Service ("USPS"), the United States Department of Defense ("DoD") and federal civilian agencies and to commercial customers, and to other customers.

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements consist of the operations of our parent company, our wholly owned subsidiaries, Energetics Incorporated ("Energetics"), Akimeka, LLC ("Akimeka"), Wheeler Bros., Inc. ("WBI") and VSE Aviation, Inc. ("VSE Aviation"), and our unincorporated divisions. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates affecting the financial statements include accruals for contract disallowance reserves and recoverability of goodwill and intangible assets.

Stock Split Effected in Form of Stock Dividend

In May 2016, our Board of Directors approved a two-for-one stock split effected in the form of a stock dividend ("Stock Split"). The Stock Split had a record date of July 20, 2016 and the resulting stock distribution occurred on August 3, 2016. All references made to share or per share amounts in the accompanying consolidated financial statements and applicable disclosures have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the Stock Split.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

Effective January 1, 2017, we adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which is intended to simplify the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification on the statement of cash flows. We have elected to account for forfeitures as they occur. The adoption of ASU 2016-09 did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Effective January 1, 2017, we adopted ASU No. 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory, which clarifies that, for inventories measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value, net realizable value should be determined based on the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. The adoption of ASU 2015-11 did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which eliminates the requirement to determine the fair value of individual assets and liabilities of a reporting unit to measure goodwill impairment. Under the amendments in ASU 2017-04, goodwill impairment testing will be performed by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognizing an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The new standard is effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and should be applied on a prospective basis with early adoption permitted. We elected to early adopt ASU 2017-04 effective April 1, 2017 and applied the new standard to our 2017 annual goodwill impairment test, as well as any interim tests. The adoption did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Stock-Based Compensation

We account for share-based awards in accordance with the applicable accounting rules that require the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards based on estimated fair values. The compensation expense, included in costs and operating expenses, is amortized over the requisite service period using the accelerated attribution method.

Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share ("EPS") is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during each period. Shares issued during the period are weighted for the portion of the period that they were outstanding. Our calculation of diluted earnings per common share includes the dilutive effects for the assumed vesting of restricted stock awards.
Years Ended December 31,
Basic weighted average common shares outstanding



Effect of dilutive shares



Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding



Cash and Cash Equivalents

We consider all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Due to the short maturity of these instruments, the carrying values on our consolidated balance sheets approximate fair value.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation of computer equipment, furniture, other equipment is provided principally by the straight-line method over periods of 3 to 15 years. Depreciation of buildings and land improvements is provided by the straight-line method over periods of approximately 15 to 20 years. Amortization of leasehold improvements is provided by the straight-line method over the lesser of their useful life or the remaining term of the lease. 

Concentration of Credit Risk/Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and trade receivables. Contracts with the government, either as a prime or subcontractor, accounted for approximately 82%, 80%, and 77% of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. We believe that concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade receivables are limited as they are primarily government receivables. We believe that the fair market value of all financial instruments, including debt, approximate book value.


Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the fee is fixed or determinable, and collectability is probable.

Substantially all of our Supply Chain Management Group revenues result from the sale of vehicle parts to clients. We recognize revenue from the sale of vehicle parts when the customer takes ownership of the parts. Sales returns and allowances are not significant.

Our Aviation Group revenues are recognized upon the shipment or delivery of products to customers based on when title or risk of loss transfers to the customer. Sales returns and allowances are not significant.

Substantially all of our Federal Services work is performed for our customers on a contract basis. The three primary types of contracts used are cost-type, fixed-price and time and materials. Revenues result from work performed on these contracts by our employees and our subcontractors and from costs for materials and other work related costs allowed under our contracts.

Revenues on cost-type contracts are recorded as contract allowable costs are incurred and fees are earned. Our FMS Program contract is a cost plus award fee contract. This contract has terms that specify award fee payments that are determined by performance and level of contract activity. Award fees are made during the year through a contract modification authorizing the award fee that is issued subsequent to the period in which the work is performed. We recognize award fee income on the FMS Program contract when the fees are fixed or determinable. Due to such timing, and to fluctuations in the level of revenues, profits as a percentage of revenues on this contract will fluctuate from period to period.

Revenue recognition methods on fixed-price contracts will vary depending on the nature of the work and the contract terms. Revenues on fixed-price service contracts are recorded as work is performed, typically ratably over the service period. Revenues on fixed-price contracts that require delivery of specific items are recorded based on a price per unit as units are delivered.

Revenues for time and materials contracts are recorded on the basis of contract allowable labor hours worked multiplied by the contract defined billing rates, plus the direct costs and indirect cost burdens associated with materials and subcontract work used in performance on the contract. Generally, profits on time and materials contracts result from the difference between the cost of services performed and the contract defined billing rates for these services.

Revenue related to work performed on government contracts at risk, which is work performed at the customer's request prior to the government formalizing funding, is not recognized until it can be reliably estimated and its realization is probable.

A substantial portion of contract and administrative costs are subject to audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency. Our indirect cost rates have been audited and approved for 2013 and prior years with no material adjustments to our results of operations or financial position. While we maintain reserves to cover the risk of potential future audit adjustments based primarily on the results of prior audits, we do not believe any future audits will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial position.

Receivables and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Receivables are recorded at amounts earned less an allowance for doubtful accounts. We review our receivables regularly to determine if there are any potentially uncollectible accounts. The majority of our receivables are from government agencies, where there is minimal credit risk. We record allowances for bad debt as a reduction to receivables and an increase to bad debt expense. We assess the adequacy of these reserves by considering general factors, such as the length of time individual receivables are past due and historical collection experience.


Inventories for our Supply Chain Group are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the first-in, first-out ("FIFO") method. Included in inventory are related purchasing, storage, and handling costs. Our inventory primarily consists of vehicle replacement parts.

Inventories for our Aviation Group are stated at lower of cost or net realizable value. Inventories for our Aviation Group primarily consist of general aviation jet aircraft engines and engine accessories and parts. The cost for purchased engines and parts is determined by the specific identification method. Included in inventory are related purchasing, overhaul labor, storage, and handling costs. We also purchase aircraft engines for disassembly into individual parts and components.

Deferred Compensation Plans

We have a deferred compensation plan, the VSE Corporation Deferred Supplemental Compensation Plan ("DSC Plan"), to provide incentive and reward for certain management employees based on overall corporate performance. We maintain the underlying assets of the DSC Plan in a Rabbi Trust and changes in asset values are included in costs and operating expenses on the accompanying consolidated statements of income. We invest the assets held by the Rabbi Trust in both corporate owned life insurance ("COLI") products and in mutual funds. The COLI investments are recorded at cash surrender value and the mutual fund investments are recorded at fair value. The DSC Plan assets are included in other assets and the obligation to the participants is included in deferred compensation on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.

Deferred compensation plan expense recorded as costs and operating expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of income for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015 was approximately $1.9 million, $1.7 million, and $1.9 million, respectively.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets include intangible assets and property and equipment to be held and used. We review the carrying values of long-lived assets other than goodwill for impairment if events or changes in the facts and circumstances indicate that their carrying values may not be recoverable. We assess impairment by comparing the estimated undiscounted future cash flows of the related asset to its carrying value. If an asset is determined to be impaired, we recognize an impairment charge in the current period for the difference between the fair value of the asset and its carrying value.

No impairment charges related to long-lived assets, other than goodwill, were recorded in the years ended December 31, 2017, December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under the asset and liability method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. This method also requires the recognition of future tax benefits, such as net operating loss carryforwards, to the extent that realization of such benefits is more likely than not. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

The carrying value of net deferred tax assets is based on assumptions regarding our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income to utilize these deferred tax assets.


We test goodwill for impairment annually in the fourth quarter and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level. A qualitative assessment can be performed to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If the reporting unit does not pass the qualitative assessment, we compare the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value using a quantitative assessment. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill is considered not impaired. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value, the difference is recorded as an impairment loss.

For the quantitative assessment, we estimate the fair value of each reporting unit using a combination of an income approach using a discounted cash flow ("DCF") analysis and a market-based valuation approach based on as comparable public company trading values. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit requires the exercise of significant management judgments, including the amount and timing of projected future revenues, earnings and cash flows, discount rates, long-term growth rates, and comparable public company revenues and earnings multiples. The projected results used in our quantitative assessment are based on our best estimate as of the testing date of future revenues, earnings and cash flows after considering factors such as recent operating performance, general market and industry conditions, existing and expected future contracts, changes in working capital, and long-term business plans and growth initiatives. The carrying value of each reporting unit includes the assets and liabilities employed in its operations and goodwill. There are no significant allocations of amounts held at the Corporate level to the reporting units.

Based on our annual goodwill impairment analysis we performed in the fourth quarter of 2017, including an interim impairment analysis performed for the VSE Aviation reporting unit at year-end, the fair value of our reporting units exceeded their carrying values.

Intangible Assets

Intangible assets consist of the value of contract-related intangible assets, trade names and acquired technologies acquired in acquisitions. We amortize on a straight-line basis intangible assets acquired as part of acquisitions over their estimated useful lives unless their useful lives are determined to be indefinite. The amounts we record related to acquired intangibles are determined by us considering the results of independent valuations. Our contract-related intangibles are amortized over their estimated useful lives of approximately seven to 16 years with a weighted-average life of approximately 12.6 years as of December 31, 2017. We have four trade names that are amortized over an estimated useful life of approximately nine years. We have an acquired technologies intangible asset that is amortized over an estimated useful life of 11 years. The weighted-average life for all amortizable intangible assets is approximately 12.2 years as of December 31, 2017.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which changes the methodology for measuring credit losses on financial instruments and the timing of when such losses are recorded. The new standard is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019 with early adoption permitted for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. We currently are assessing the impact that this standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. The new standard is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted. We currently are assessing the impact that this standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The ASU is based on the principle that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for the goods or services. The standard is required to be applied either retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying it recognized at the date of initial application. The ASU also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to fulfill a contract.
We performed a detailed review of our contract portfolio representative of our different businesses and compared historical accounting policies and practices to the new standard. Based on the assessment, the primary impacts of adopting the new standard will be on (1) the timing of when we recognize revenue on our contracts with award fees, which is currently based on when we receive customer authorization, will change to recognition of the award fees as the performance obligation is satisfied resulting in revenue being recognized earlier in the contract period, (2) the timing of when we recognize revenues and costs on MRO services for aviation clients and certain fixed price delivery contracts will change from the date of delivery to recognition over time as progress is made to satisfy the performance obligation, and (3) the pattern in which we recognize revenue on certain fixed price services contracts may change from a straight-line basis over the contract period to measuring progress using input measures, such as costs incurred. While we have identified these areas of change under the new standard, we also implemented changes to our business processes, systems and controls to support adoption of the new standard in 2018. The new standard requires additional disclosures regarding the company’s contracts with customers, including disclosure of remaining unsatisfied performance obligations, in the first quarter 2018, which we are continuing to assess. We adopted the new standard effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. The cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard is preliminarily estimated to be an increase to retained earnings of approximately $1.5 million.