Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2013
Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
(1)  Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

Nature of Business

The term "VSE," the "Company," "us," "we," or "our" means VSE and its subsidiaries and divisions unless the context indicates operations of the parent company only.

Our business operations consist of vehicle fleet and equipment sustainment services, including supply chain management services, and diversified technical services, including logistics, engineering,  IT solutions, health care IT, and consulting services performed on a contract basis. Our services are performed for the United States Government (the "government"), including the United States Department of Defense ("DoD"), United States Postal Service ("USPS"), and various federal civilian agencies, and other clients.

Significant Accounting Policies

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements consist of the operations of our parent company, our unincorporated divisions and wholly owned subsidiaries. Our subsidiaries are Energetics Incorporated ("Energetics"), G&B Solutions, Inc. ("G&B"), Akimeka, LLC ("Akimeka") and Wheeler Bros., Inc. ("WBI"). All intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. These consolidated financial statements also account for the classification of the Infrastructure Group as a result of discontinued operations of our subsidiary Integrated Concepts and Research Corporation ("ICRC") and therefore any financial impact of such group has been presented as discontinued operations in the 2013, 2012 and 2011 reporting periods.

Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates affecting the financial statements include accruals for contract disallowance reserves, recoverability of goodwill and intangible assets and earn-out obligations related to acquisitions consummated after January 1, 2009.


Certain amounts from the prior year have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation. Such reclassifications were not material.

Stock-Based Compensation

We account for share-based awards in accordance with the applicable accounting rules that require the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards based on estimated fair values. The compensation expense, included in contract costs, is amortized over the requisite service period. See Note 9, Stock-Based Compensation Plans, for further discussion of our stock-based compensation plans and related activity.

Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share ("EPS") have been computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during each period. Shares issued during the period are weighted for the portion of the period that they were outstanding. Our calculation of diluted earnings per common share includes the dilutive effects for the assumed vesting of restricted stock awards.

During the first quarter of 2012, we determined that our restricted stock awards should be included in our diluted weighted average common shares outstanding.  

Years Ended December 31,
Basic weighted average common shares outstanding
Effect of dilutive shares
Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding

Cash and Cash Equivalents

We consider all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Due to the short maturity of these instruments, the carrying values on our consolidated balance sheets approximate fair value.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation of computer equipment, furniture, other equipment is provided principally by the straight-line method over periods of 3 to 15 years. Depreciation of buildings and land improvements is provided by the straight-line method over periods of approximately 15 to 20 years. Amortization of leasehold improvements is provided by the straight-line method over the lesser of their useful life or the remaining term of the lease. 

Concentration of Credit Risk/Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and trade receivables.  Contracts with the government, either as a prime or subcontractor, accounted for approximately 99% of revenues for each of the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, and 2011. We believe that concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade receivables are limited as they are primarily government receivables. We believe that the fair market value of all financial instruments, including debt, approximate book value.


Substantially all of our work is performed for our customers on a contract basis. The three primary types of contracts used are time and materials, cost-type, and fixed-price. Revenues result from work performed on these contracts by our employees and our subcontractors and from costs for materials and other work related costs allowed under our contracts.

Revenues for time and materials contracts are recorded on the basis of contract allowable labor hours worked multiplied by the contract defined billing rates, plus the direct costs and indirect cost burdens associated with materials and subcontract work used in performance on the contract. Generally, profits on time and materials contracts result from the difference between the cost of services performed and the contract defined billing rates for these services.

Revenues on cost-type contracts are recorded as contract allowable costs are incurred and fees are earned. Our FMS Program contract is a cost plus award fee contract. This contract has terms that specify award fee payments that are determined by performance and level of contract activity. Award fees are made during the year through a contract modification authorizing the award fee that is issued subsequent to the period in which the work is performed. We recognize award fee income on the FMS Program contract when the fees are fixed or determinable. Due to such timing, and to fluctuations in the level of revenues, profits as a percentage of revenues on this contract will fluctuate from period to period.

Revenue recognition methods on fixed-price contracts will vary depending on the nature of the work and the contract terms. Revenues on fixed-price service contracts are recorded as work is performed, typically ratably over the service period. Revenues on fixed-price contracts that require delivery of specific items are recorded based on a price per unit as units are delivered.

Substantially all of the WBI's revenues result from a Managed Inventory Program ("MIP") that supplies vehicle parts to clients.  We recognize revenue from the sale of vehicle parts when the product is used by the customer.

Revenue related to work performed on contracts at risk, which is work performed at the customer's request prior to the government formalizing funding, is not recognized until it can be reliably estimated and its realization is probable.

A substantial portion of contract and administrative costs are subject to audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency.  Our indirect cost rates have been audited and approved for 2006 and prior years with no material adjustments to our results of operations or financial position.  While we maintain reserves to cover the risk of potential future audit adjustments based primarily on the results of prior audits, we do not believe any future audits will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial position.

Receivables and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Receivables are recorded at amounts earned less an allowance for doubtful accounts.  We review our receivables regularly to determine if there are any potentially uncollectible accounts.  The majority of our receivables are from government agencies, where there is minimal credit risk.  We record allowances for bad debt as a reduction to receivables and an increase to bad debt expense. We assess the adequacy of these reserves by considering general factors, such as the length of time individual receivables are past due and historical collection experience.


Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market using the first-in, first-out ("FIFO") method.  Included in inventory are related purchasing, storage, and handling costs.  Our inventory primarily consists of vehicle replacement parts.

Deferred Compensation Plans

We have a deferred compensation plan, the VSE Corporation Deferred Supplemental Compensation Plan ("DSC Plan"), to provide incentive and reward for certain management employees based on overall corporate performance. We maintain the underlying assets of the DSC Plan in a Rabbi Trust and changes in asset values are included in contract costs on the accompanying consolidated statements of income.  We invest the assets held by the Rabbi Trust in both corporate owned life insurance ("COLI") products and in mutual funds.  The COLI investments are recorded at cash surrender value and the mutual fund investments are recorded at fair value.  The DSC Plan assets are included in other assets and the obligation to the participants is included in deferred compensation on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.

Deferred compensation plan expense recorded as contract costs in the accompanying consolidated statements of income for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, and 2011 was approximately $1.4 million, $1.2 million, and $1.4 million, respectively.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets include property and equipment to be held and used. We review the carrying values of long-lived assets other than goodwill for impairment if events or changes in the facts and circumstances indicate that their carrying values may not be recoverable. We assess impairment by comparing the estimated undiscounted future cash flows of the related asset to its carrying value. If an asset is determined to be impaired, we recognize an impairment charge in the current period for the difference between the fair value of the asset and its carrying value. During 2012, impairment charges of approximately $1 million were recorded for the intangible assets related to the acquisition of Akimeka (see Note 6, Goodwill and Intangible Assets). Also during 2012, an impairment charge of approximately $1.9 million was recorded for the intangible assets related to our acquisition of ICRC (see Note 6, Goodwill and Intangible Assets). No impairment charges related to intangible assets, other than goodwill, were recorded in the year ended December 31, 2013.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under the asset and liability method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. This method also requires the recognition of future tax benefits, such as net operating loss carryforwards, to the extent that realization of such benefits is more likely than not. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

The carrying value of net deferred tax assets is based on assumptions regarding our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income to utilize these deferred tax assets.


We review goodwill for impairment annually at the beginning of the fourth quarter and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable. The goodwill impairment test involves a two-step process. In the first step, we compare the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill is not impaired and no further testing is required. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value, we must perform the second step of the impairment test to measure the amount of impairment loss. In the second step, the reporting unit's fair value is allocated to all of the assets and liabilities of the reporting unit, including any unrecognized intangible assets, in a hypothetical analysis that calculates the implied fair value of goodwill in the same manner as if the reporting unit was being acquired in a business combination. If the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill is less than the carrying value, the difference is recorded as an impairment loss. Based on our annual goodwill impairment analysis we performed during the fourth quarter of 2013, we found no impairment in the carrying value of goodwill.

During 2013, goodwill of $790 thousand included in current assets of discontinued operations was impaired (See Note 16, Discontinued Operations). Based on the results of the impairment analyses performed during 2012, goodwill impairment charges of approximately $6 million were recorded related to our ICRC acquisition (see Note 6, Goodwill and Intangible Assets).

Intangible assets consist of the value of contract-related intangible assets, trade names and acquired technologies acquired in acquisitions (see Notes 5, Acquisitions and 6, Goodwill and Intangible Assets). We amortize on a straight-line basis intangible assets acquired as part of acquisitions over their estimated useful lives unless their useful lives are determined to be indefinite.  The amounts we record related to acquired intangibles are determined by us considering the results of independent valuations. Our contract-related intangibles are amortized over their estimated useful lives of approximately 8 to 12 years with a weighted-average life of approximately 11.8 years as of December 31, 2013.  We have three trade names that are amortized over an estimated useful life of approximately 8.4 years. We have an acquired technologies intangible asset that is amortized over an estimated useful life of 11 years. The weighted-average life for all amortizable intangible assets is approximately 11.4 years as of December 31, 2013.