Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2015
Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
(1)  Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

Nature of Business

The term "VSE," the "Company," "us," "we," or "our" means VSE and its subsidiaries and divisions unless the context indicates operations of only VSE as the parent company.

Our operations include supply chain management solutions and parts supply for vehicle fleets; maintenance, repair, and overhaul ("MRO") services and parts supply for aviation clients; vehicle and equipment maintenance and refurbishment; logistics; engineering; energy and environmental services; IT and health care IT solutions; and consulting services. We provide logistics services for legacy systems and equipment and professional and technical services to the United States Government (the "government"), including the United States Postal Service ("USPS"), the United States Department of Defense ("DoD"), federal civilian agencies, commercial customers, and to other customers.

Significant Accounting Policies

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements consist of the operations of our parent company, our wholly owned subsidiaries, Energetics Incorporated ("Energetics"), Akimeka, LLC ("Akimeka"), Wheeler Bros., Inc. ("WBI") and VSE Aviation, Inc. ("VAI"), and our unincorporated divisions. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. These consolidated financial statements also account for the classification of the Infrastructure Group as discontinued operations of our subsidiary Integrated Concepts and Research Corporation ("ICRC") and therefore any financial impact of such group has been presented as discontinued operations in the 2014 and 2013 reporting periods.

Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates affecting the financial statements include accruals for contract disallowance reserves, recoverability of goodwill and intangible assets and earn-out obligations.

Stock-Based Compensation

We account for share-based awards in accordance with the applicable accounting rules that require the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards based on estimated fair values. The compensation expense, included in contract costs, is amortized over the requisite service period. See Note 9, Stock-Based Compensation Plans, for further discussion of our stock-based compensation plans and related activity.

Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share ("EPS") is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during each period. Shares issued during the period are weighted for the portion of the period that they were outstanding. Our calculation of diluted earnings per common share includes the dilutive effects for the assumed vesting of restricted stock awards.

Years Ended December 31,
Basic weighted average common shares outstanding
Effect of dilutive shares
Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding

Cash and Cash Equivalents

We consider all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Due to the short maturity of these instruments, the carrying values on our consolidated balance sheets approximate fair value.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation of computer equipment, furniture, other equipment is provided principally by the straight-line method over periods of 3 to 15 years. Depreciation of buildings and land improvements is provided by the straight-line method over periods of approximately 15 to 20 years. Amortization of leasehold improvements is provided by the straight-line method over the lesser of their useful life or the remaining term of the lease. 

Concentration of Credit Risk/Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and trade receivables.  Contracts with the government, either as a prime or subcontractor, accounted for approximately 76% of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2015 and 99% of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013. We believe that concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade receivables are limited as they are primarily government receivables. We believe that the fair market value of all financial instruments, including debt, approximate book value.


Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the fee is fixed or determinable, and collectability is probable.

Substantially all of our Supply Chain Management Group revenues result from the sale of vehicle parts to clients. We recognize revenue from the sale of vehicle parts when the customer takes ownership of the parts.

Our Aviation Group revenues are recognized upon the shipment or delivery of products to customers based on when title or risk of loss transfers to the customer. Sales returns and allowances are not significant.

Substantially all of our Federal Services and IT, Energy and Management Consulting work is performed for our customers on a contract basis. The three primary types of contracts used are time and materials, cost-type, and fixed-price. Revenues result from work performed on these contracts by our employees and our subcontractors and from costs for materials and other work related costs allowed under our contracts.

Revenue recognition methods on fixed-price contracts will vary depending on the nature of the work and the contract terms. Revenues on fixed-price service contracts are recorded as work is performed, typically ratably over the service period. Revenues on fixed-price contracts that require delivery of specific items are recorded based on a price per unit as units are delivered.

Revenues on cost-type contracts are recorded as contract allowable costs are incurred and fees are earned. Our FMS Program contract is a cost plus award fee contract. This contract has terms that specify award fee payments that are determined by performance and level of contract activity. Award fees are made during the year through a contract modification authorizing the award fee that is issued subsequent to the period in which the work is performed. We recognize award fee income on the FMS Program contract when the fees are fixed or determinable. Due to such timing, and to fluctuations in the level of revenues, profits as a percentage of revenues on this contract will fluctuate from period to period.
Revenues for time and materials contracts are recorded on the basis of contract allowable labor hours worked multiplied by the contract defined billing rates, plus the direct costs and indirect cost burdens associated with materials and subcontract work used in performance on the contract. Generally, profits on time and materials contracts result from the difference between the cost of services performed and the contract defined billing rates for these services.

Revenue related to work performed on government contracts at risk, which is work performed at the customer's request prior to the government formalizing funding, is not recognized until it can be reliably estimated and its realization is probable.

A substantial portion of contract and administrative costs are subject to audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency.  Our indirect cost rates have been audited and approved for 2009 and prior years with no material adjustments to our results of operations or financial position.  While we maintain reserves to cover the risk of potential future audit adjustments based primarily on the results of prior audits, we do not believe any future audits will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial position.

Receivables and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Receivables are recorded at amounts earned less an allowance for doubtful accounts.  We review our receivables regularly to determine if there are any potentially uncollectible accounts.  The majority of our receivables are from government agencies, where there is minimal credit risk.  We record allowances for bad debt as a reduction to receivables and an increase to bad debt expense. We assess the adequacy of these reserves by considering general factors, such as the length of time individual receivables are past due and historical collection experience.


Inventories for our Supply Chain Group are stated at the lower of cost or market using the first-in, first-out ("FIFO") method.  Included in inventory are related purchasing, storage, and handling costs.  Our inventory primarily consists of vehicle replacement parts.

Inventories for our Aviation Group are stated at lower of cost or market. Inventories for our Aviation Group primarily consist of general aviation jet aircraft engines and engine accessories and parts. The cost for purchased engines and parts is determined by the specific identification method. Included in inventory are related purchasing, overhaul labor, storage, and handling costs. We also purchase aircraft engines for disassembly into individual parts and components.

Deferred Compensation Plans

We have a deferred compensation plan, the VSE Corporation Deferred Supplemental Compensation Plan ("DSC Plan"), to provide incentive and reward for certain management employees based on overall corporate performance. We maintain the underlying assets of the DSC Plan in a Rabbi Trust and changes in asset values are included in contract costs on the accompanying consolidated statements of income.  We invest the assets held by the Rabbi Trust in both corporate owned life insurance ("COLI") products and in mutual funds.  The COLI investments are recorded at cash surrender value and the mutual fund investments are recorded at fair value.  The DSC Plan assets are included in other assets and the obligation to the participants is included in deferred compensation on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.

Deferred compensation plan expense recorded as contract costs in the accompanying consolidated statements of income for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 was approximately $1.9 million, $1.3 million, and $1.4 million, respectively.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets include property and equipment to be held and used. We review the carrying values of long-lived assets other than goodwill for impairment if events or changes in the facts and circumstances indicate that their carrying values may not be recoverable. We assess impairment by comparing the estimated undiscounted future cash flows of the related asset to its carrying value. If an asset is determined to be impaired, we recognize an impairment charge in the current period for the difference between the fair value of the asset and its carrying value.

No impairment charges related to intangible assets, other than goodwill, were recorded in the years ended December 31, 2015, December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under the asset and liability method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. This method also requires the recognition of future tax benefits, such as net operating loss carryforwards, to the extent that realization of such benefits is more likely than not. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

The carrying value of net deferred tax assets is based on assumptions regarding our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income to utilize these deferred tax assets.


We test goodwill for impairment annually during the fourth quarter and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable. The goodwill impairment test involves a two-step process. In the first step, we compare the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill is considered not impaired and no further testing is required. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value, we must perform the second step of the impairment test to measure the amount of the goodwill impairment loss. In the second step, the reporting unit's fair value is allocated to all of the assets and liabilities of the reporting unit, including any unrecognized intangible assets, in a hypothetical analysis that calculates the implied fair value of goodwill in the same manner as if the reporting unit was being acquired in a business combination. If the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill is less than the carrying value, the difference is recorded as an impairment loss. Based on our annual goodwill impairment analysis we performed during the fourth quarter of 2015, the fair value of our reporting units exceeded their carrying values.

Intangible assets consist of the value of contract-related intangible assets, trade names and acquired technologies acquired in acquisitions. We amortize on a straight-line basis intangible assets acquired as part of acquisitions over their estimated useful lives unless their useful lives are determined to be indefinite.  The amounts we record related to acquired intangibles are determined by us considering the results of independent valuations. Our contract-related intangibles are amortized over their estimated useful lives of approximately seven to 16 years with a weighted-average life of approximately 12.6 years as of December 31, 2015.  We have four trade names that are amortized over an estimated useful life of approximately nine years. We have an acquired technologies intangible asset that is amortized over an estimated useful life of 11 years. The weighted-average life for all amortizable intangible assets is approximately 12.2 years as of December 31, 2015.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) Leases: Amendments to the FASB Accounting Standards Codifications, to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. The ASU will become effective for us on January 2019. Early adoption of the ASU is permitted. We currently are assessing the impact, if any that this standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.

In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes, which amends the current requirement for organizations to present deferred tax assets and liabilities as current and noncurrent in a classified balance sheet.  Organizations will now be required to classify all deferred tax assets and liabilities as noncurrent.  The ASU will become effective for us on January 2017. Early adoption of the ASU is permitted.  We currently are assessing the impact, if any that this standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-16, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments, which eliminates the requirement to account for measurement-period adjustments retrospectively.  The ASU instead requires an acquirer to recognize a measurement-period adjustment during the period in which it determines the amount of the adjustment. We adopted the standard on January 1, 2015 and will prospectively apply the standard to business combination adjustments identified after the date of adoption.

In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. Under the new standard, debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability are required to be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. The guidance in ASU 2015-03 is effective for the fiscal year, and interim periods within that fiscal year, beginning after December 15, 2015.  We currently are assessing the impact that this standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The ASU is based on the principle that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The ASU also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to fulfill a contract. The effective date of the ASU was recently deferred for one year to the interim and annual periods beginning on or after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted as of the original effective date – interim and annual periods beginning on or after December 15, 2016. We currently are assessing the impact that this standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.