Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies||
Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Business
The term "VSE," the "Company," "us," "we," or "our" means VSE and its subsidiaries and divisions unless the context indicates operations of only VSE as the parent company.
Our operations include aftermarket supply chain management solutions and parts supply for vehicle fleets; maintenance, repair, and overhaul ("MRO") services and parts supply for aviation clients; vehicle and equipment maintenance and refurbishment; logistics; engineering; energy services; IT and health care IT solutions; and consulting services. We serve the United States Government (the "government"), including the United States Department of Defense ("DoD"), federal civilian agencies, and commercial and other customers.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements consist of the operations of our parent company, our wholly owned subsidiaries, Energetics Incorporated ("Energetics"), Akimeka, LLC ("Akimeka"), Wheeler Bros., Inc. ("WBI") and VSE Aviation, Inc. ("VSE Aviation"), and our unincorporated divisions. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("U.S. GAAP") requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates affecting the financial statements include accruals for contract disallowance reserves, recoverability of goodwill and intangible assets, and earn-out obligations.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) ("ASC 842"), to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. The new standard is required to be adopted using a modified retrospective method and is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. In July 2018, the FASB provided an alternative transition method of adoption through ASU No. 2018-11, Targeted Improvements, which provides entities with an optional transition method to apply the transition provisions of ASU 2016-02 at the beginning of the period of adoption.
On January 1, 2019, we adopted ASC 842 using the alternative transition method provided by ASU 2018-11 recording right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for our existing leases as of January 1, 2019, as well as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings of initially applying the new standard as of January 1, 2019. We have elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance, which does not require reassessment of prior conclusions related to lease identification, lease classification, and treatment for initial direct lease costs. We have not elected the practical expedients pertaining to the use of hindsight and land easements.
The adoption of the new lease standard resulted in the recharacterization of our headquarters lease, which was accounted for using the financing method under previously existing build-to-suit accounting rules, to an operating lease under ASC 842. Upon adoption of the new lease standard on January 1, 2019, we derecognized existing liabilities of approximately $20.3 million and fixed assets of $15.2 million and recorded a right-of-use asset of $21.3 million, property and equipment of $2.8 million, and operating lease liability of $29.6 million, with immaterial changes to other balance sheet accounts. The recharacterization resulted in an immaterial cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings, net of taxes, as of January 1, 2019. The new standard did not have a significant impact on our consolidated results of operations or cash flows. Certain amounts for our ASC 842 adoption have been adjusted to conform to the current period presentation. These adjustments have no effect on our reported financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. Financial information for periods prior to January 1, 2019, has not been restated for the adoption of ASU 2016-02.
We account for share-based awards in accordance with the applicable accounting rules that require the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards based on estimated fair values. The compensation expense included in costs and operating expenses is amortized over the requisite service period using the accelerated attribution method.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share ("EPS") is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during each period. Shares issued during the period are weighted for the portion of the period that they were outstanding. Our calculation of diluted earnings per common share includes the dilutive effects for the assumed vesting of restricted stock awards.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Due to the short maturity of these instruments, the carrying values on our consolidated balance sheets approximate fair value.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation of computer equipment, furniture, other equipment is provided principally by the straight-line method over periods of three to 15 years. Depreciation of buildings and land improvements is provided by the straight-line method over periods of approximately 15 to 20 years. Amortization of leasehold improvements is provided by the straight-line method over the lesser of their useful life or the remaining term of the lease.
Concentration of Credit Risk/Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and trade receivables. Our trade receivables consist of amounts due from various government clients and commercial entities. We believe that concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade receivables are limited due to the large number of customers comprising the customer base and their dispersion across many different geographic regions. Contracts with the government, either as a prime or subcontractor, accounted for approximately 68%, 78%, and 82% of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The credit risk, with respect to contracts with the government, is limited due to the creditworthiness of the respective governmental entity. We perform ongoing credit evaluations and monitoring of the financial condition of all our customers. We believe that the fair market value of all financial instruments, including debt, approximate book value.
Revenues for 2019 and 2018
On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC 606 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018, including the aggregate effect of modifications to such contracts through January 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under the new guidance, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with previous guidance.
We account for revenue in accordance with ASC 606. The unit of account in ASC 606 is a performance obligation. At the inception of each contract with a customer, we determine our performance obligations under the contract and the contract's transaction price. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and is defined as the unit of account. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when the performance obligation is satisfied. The majority of our contracts have a single performance obligation as the promise to transfer the respective goods or services is not separately identifiable from other promises in the contracts and is, therefore, not distinct. For product sales, each product sold to a customer typically represents a distinct performance obligation. Our performance obligations are satisfied over time as work progresses or at a point in time based on transfer of control of products and services to our customers.
Contract modifications are routine in the performance of our contracts. Contracts are often modified to account for changes in contract specifications or requirements. In most instances, contract modifications are for goods or services that are not distinct, and therefore are accounted for as part of the existing contract.
Substantially all our Supply Chain Management Group revenues from the sale of vehicle parts to customers is recognized at the point in time of the transfer of control to the customer. Sales returns and allowances for vehicle parts are not significant.
Our Aviation Group revenues result from the sale of aircraft parts and performance of MRO services for private and commercial aircraft owners, other aviation MRO providers, and aviation original equipment manufacturers. Our Aviation Group recognizes revenues for the sale of aircraft parts at a point in time when control is transferred to the customer, which usually occurs when the parts are shipped. Our Aviation Group recognizes revenues for MRO services over time as the services are transferred to the customer. MRO services revenue recognized is measured based on the cost-to-cost input method, as costs incurred reflect the work completed, and therefore the services transferred to date. Sales returns and allowances are not significant.
Our Federal Services Group revenues result from professional and technical services, which we perform for customers on a contract basis. Revenue is recognized for performance obligations over time as we transfer the services to the customer. The three primary types of contracts used are cost-type, fixed-price and time and materials. Revenues result from work performed on these contracts by our employees and our subcontractors and from costs for materials and other work-related costs allowed under our contracts.
Revenues on cost-type contracts are recorded as contract allowable costs are incurred and fees are earned. Variable consideration, typically in the form of award fees, is included in the estimated transaction price, to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal will not occur, when there is a basis to reasonably estimate the amount of the fee. These estimates are based on historical award experience, anticipated performance and our best judgment based on current facts and circumstances.
Revenues on fixed-price contracts are recorded as work is performed over the period. Revenue is recognized over time using costs incurred to date relative to total estimated costs at completion to measure progress toward satisfying our performance obligations. Incurred cost represents work performed, which corresponds with the transfer of control to the customer. For such contracts, we estimate total costs at the inception of the contract based on our assumptions of the cost elements required to complete the associated tasks of the contract and assess the impact of the risks on our estimates of total costs to complete the contract. Our cost estimates are based on assumptions that include the complexity of the work, our employee labor costs, the cost of materials and the performance of our subcontractors. These cost estimates are subject to change as we perform under the contract and as a result, the timing of revenues and amount of profit on a contract may change as there are changes in estimated costs to complete the contract. Such adjustments are recognized on a cumulative catch-up basis in the period we identify the changes.
Revenues for time and materials contracts are recorded based on the amount for which we have the right to invoice our customers, because the amount directly reflects the value of our work performed for the customer. Revenues are recorded on the basis of contract allowable labor hours worked multiplied by the contract defined billing rates, plus the direct costs and indirect cost burdens associated with materials and subcontract work used in performance on the contract. Generally, profits on time and materials contracts result from the difference between the cost of services performed and the contract defined billing rates for these services.
Revenues related to work performed on government contracts at risk, which is work performed at the customer's request prior to the government formalizing funding, is not recognized until it can be reliably estimated and its realization is probable.
A substantial portion of contract and administrative costs are subject to audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency. Our indirect cost rates have been audited and approved for 2013 and prior years with no material adjustments to our results of operations or financial position. While we maintain reserves to cover the risk of potential future audit adjustments based primarily on the results of prior audits, we do not believe any future audits will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows.
Revenues for 2017
Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the fee is fixed or determinable, and collectability is probable.
Substantially all of our Supply Chain Management Group revenues result from the sale of vehicle parts to clients. We recognize revenue from the sale of vehicle parts when the customer takes ownership of the parts. Sales returns and allowances are not significant.
Our Aviation Group revenues are recognized upon the shipment or delivery of products to customers based on when title or risk of loss transfers to the customer. Sales returns and allowances are not significant.
Substantially all of our Federal Services work is performed for our customers on a contract basis. The three primary types of contracts used are cost-type, fixed-price and time and materials. Revenues result from work performed on these contracts by our employees and our subcontractors and from costs for materials and other work related costs allowed under our contracts.
Revenues on cost-type contracts are recorded as contract allowable costs are incurred and fees are earned. Our FMS Program contract is a cost plus award fee contract. This contract has terms that specify award fee payments that are determined by performance and level of contract activity. Award fees are made during the year through a contract modification authorizing the award fee that is issued subsequent to the period in which the work is performed. We recognize award fee income on the FMS Program contract when the fees are fixed or determinable. Due to such timing and fluctuations in the level of revenues, profits as a percentage of revenues on this contract will fluctuate from period to period.
Revenue recognition methods on fixed-price contracts will vary depending on the nature of the work and the contract terms. Revenues on fixed-price service contracts are recorded as work is performed, typically ratably over the service period. Revenues on fixed price contracts that require delivery of specific items are recorded based on a price per unit as units are delivered.
Revenues for time and materials contracts are recorded on the basis of contract allowable labor hours worked multiplied by the contract defined billing rates, plus the direct costs and indirect cost burdens associated with materials and subcontract work used in performance on the contract. Generally, profits on time and materials contracts result from the difference between the cost of services performed and the contract defined billing rates for these services.
Receivables and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Receivables are recorded at amounts earned less an allowance for doubtful accounts. We review our receivables regularly to determine if there are any potentially uncollectible accounts. The majority of our receivables are from government agencies, where there is minimal credit risk. We record allowances for bad debt as a reduction to receivables and an increase to bad debt expense. We assess the adequacy of these reserves by considering general factors, such as the length of time individual receivables are past due and historical collection experience.
Unbilled receivables include amounts typically resulting from sales under contracts when the cost-to-cost method of revenue recognition is utilized and revenue recognized exceeds the amount billed to the customer. The amounts may not exceed their estimated net realizable value. Unbilled receivables are classified as current based on our contract operating cycle.
Inventories for our Supply Chain Group are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the first-in, first-out ("FIFO") method. Included in inventory are related purchasing, storage and handling costs. Our inventory primarily consists of vehicle replacement parts.
Inventories for our Aviation Group are stated at lower of cost or net realizable value. Inventories for our Aviation Group primarily consist of aftermarket parts for distribution, general aviation jet aircraft engines and engine accessories and parts. The cost for purchased engines and parts is determined by the specific identification method. Included in inventory are related purchasing, overhaul labor, storage and handling costs. We also purchase aircraft engines for disassembly into individual parts and components.
Deferred Compensation Plans
We have a deferred compensation plan, the VSE Corporation Deferred Supplemental Compensation Plan ("DSC Plan"), to provide incentive and reward for certain key management employees based on overall corporate performance. We maintain the underlying assets of the DSC Plan in a Rabbi Trust and changes in asset values are included in costs and operating expenses on the accompanying consolidated statements of income. We invest the assets held by the Rabbi Trust in both corporate owned life insurance ("COLI") products and in mutual funds. The COLI investments are recorded at cash surrender value and the mutual fund investments are recorded at fair value. The DSC Plan assets are included in other assets and the obligation to the participants is included in deferred compensation on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Deferred compensation plan expense recorded as costs and operating expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of income for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 was approximately $1.7 million, $2.1 million and $1.9 million, respectively.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets include amortizable intangible assets and property and equipment to be held and used. We review the carrying values of long-lived assets other than goodwill for impairment if events or changes in the facts and circumstances indicate that their carrying values may not be recoverable. We assess impairment by comparing the estimated undiscounted future cash flows of the related asset to its carrying value. If an asset is determined to be impaired, we recognize an impairment charge in the current period for the difference between the fair value of the asset and its carrying value.
No impairment charges related to long-lived assets were recorded in the years ended December 31, 2019, December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under the asset and liability method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. This method also requires the recognition of future tax benefits, such as net operating loss carryforwards, to the extent that realization of such benefits is more likely than not. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
The carrying value of net deferred tax assets is based on assumptions regarding our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income to utilize these deferred tax assets.
We test goodwill for impairment annually in the fourth quarter and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level. A qualitative assessment can be performed to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If the reporting unit does not pass the qualitative assessment, we compare the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value using a quantitative assessment. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill is considered not impaired. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value, the difference is recorded as an impairment loss.
For the quantitative assessment, we estimate the fair value of each reporting unit using a combination of an income approach using a discounted cash flow ("DCF") analysis and a market-based valuation approach based on comparable public company trading values. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit requires the exercise of significant management judgments, including the amount and timing of projected future revenues, earnings and cash flows, discount rates, long-term growth rates and comparable public company revenues and earnings multiples. The projected results used in our quantitative assessment are based on our best estimate as of the testing date of future revenues, earnings and cash flows after considering factors such as recent operating performance, general market and industry conditions, existing and expected future contracts, changes in working capital and long-term business plans and growth initiatives. The carrying value of each reporting unit includes the assets and liabilities employed in its operations and goodwill. There are no significant allocations of amounts held at the Corporate level to the reporting units.
Based on our annual goodwill impairment analysis we performed in the fourth quarter of 2019, the fair value of our reporting units exceeded their carrying values.
Intangible assets consist of the value of contract-related intangible assets, trade names and acquired technologies acquired in acquisitions. We amortize intangible assets on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives unless their useful lives are determined to be indefinite. The amounts we record related to acquired intangibles are determined by us considering the results of independent valuations. Our contract-related intangibles are amortized over their estimated useful lives of approximately five to 18 years with a weighted-average life of approximately 13.9 years as of December 31, 2019. We have six trade names that are amortized over an estimated useful life of approximately two to nine years. We have an acquired technologies intangible asset that is amortized over an estimated useful life of 11 years. The weighted-average life for all amortizable intangible assets is approximately 13.4 years as of December 31, 2019.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which changes the methodology for measuring credit losses on financial instruments and the timing of when such losses are recorded. The new standard is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. We have adopted the new standard effective January 1, 2020. We do not anticipate that the adoption of the new standard will have a significant impact on our operating results, financial position or cash flows.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which eliminates certain disclosures related to transfers and the valuations process, modifies disclosures for investments that are valued based on net asset value, clarifies the measurement uncertainty disclosure, and requires additional disclosures for Level 3 fair value measurements. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 with early adoption permitted. We currently are assessing the impact this standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract, which clarifies the accounting for implementation costs in cloud computing arrangements. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. We have adopted the new standard effective January 1, 2020. We do not anticipate that the adoption of the new standard will have a significant impact on our operating results, financial position or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for the business description and accounting policies concepts. Business description describes the nature and type of organization including but not limited to organizational structure as may be applicable to holding companies, parent and subsidiary relationships, business divisions, business units, business segments, affiliates and information about significant ownership of the reporting entity. Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef